1. INTRODUCTION

The rapid growth of technology is not at all surprising but what surprises is the rate at which the technology is growing and evolving, impacting our lives in a way no one could have imagined some decades ago. Today, you can listen to the news or play your favorite music without getting up from your place, by just giving spoken instructions. Based on your choices or search history, your online shopping store suggests products for you and you are surprised with their intelligent matching choices, no? All this and much more is possible because of modern age technologies.

In this chapter, we shall talk about some current trends in computing and information technology. So, let us start.

2. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial Intelligence (AI) basically refers to the ability of a machine or a computer program to think and learn. In simple words, the field of AI revolves around bringing out technologies that help build machines that can think, act, and learn like humans.

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? What are some applications of AI?

Artificial intelligence or AI for short – is a technology that helps a computer to think or act in a more ‘human’ way. It accomplishes this by taking in information from its surroundings and deciding its response based on what it learns or senses. Some application sites of AI are machine learning, Natural language processing, business, robotics, analytics, driverless vehicles, and many more.

An AI-based program and technology should bring out these things :
  • Firstly, it should be able to mimic human thought processes and behavior e.g., learning from mistakes, catching up with new ideas, learning new things from new exposure, past experiences (this ability is called heuristics.), etc.
  • Secondly, it should act in a human-like way-intelligent, rational, and ethical, i.e., it should be able to take the right decisions in ethical ways.
Thus, modern AI devices are developed and programmed to :
  • work with minimum human intervention.
  • create and update the knowledge base, which keeps updating.
  • having heuristic abilities (i.e., to learn from past mistakes, decisions, and outcomes).
Note

Field of Al revolves around bringing out technologies that help build machines that can think, act, and learn like humans.

The most famous example of AI today is the social humanoid robot Sophia, who has been awarded citizenship in Saudi Arabia.

Other common examples of AI today are:
  • Siri and Alexa are the personal assistants that have already become the new normal for thousands of people around the globe.
  • smart home devices like Google’s NEST,
  • self-driving cars like those produced by Tesla,
  • online games like Alien: Isolation.
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Artificial Intelligence (Al) refers to the ability of a machine or a computer program to think, learn and evolve.

It is predicted that in the coming 5 to 10 years AI will grow tremendously. AI-based machines would exceed humans in assignments such as translating languages, writing school reports, driving trucks, etc. However, more difficult tasks like operating in place of a surgeon or coming out with heart-touching emotional books or bestsellers, etc. will take machines much more time to learn. Al is expected to master these skills in the coming decades.

Let us now talk about Machine Learning (ML), which is a popular subdomain of AI.

2.1 Machine Learning (ML):

Machine Learning is a sub-area of artificial intelligence, which refers to the ability of computers to independently find solutions to problems by recognizing patterns in databases using statistical techniques. Machine Learning enables computers to recognize patterns on the basis of specific algorithms called models and data sets and to develop adequate solution concepts. Consequently, in Machine Learning, artificial mastership is generated on the basis of experience.

MACHINE LEARNING

Machine Learning is an application of artificial intelligence (Al) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed, after initial training using test and training data and algorithms.

Machine Learning is an application of artificial intelligence (Al) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed, after initial training using test and training data and algorithms.

What is Machine Learning? What are some applications of machine learning?

Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the capability to automatically learn and enhance from experience without being explicitly programmed. ML applications understand from experience like humans without direct programming. When revealed to new data, these applications learn, develop, change, and develop by themselves.
In other words, with Machine Learning, computers see insightful data without being told where to look. Rather, they do this by leveraging algorithms that learn from data in an iterative method. Machine Learning has found applications in many areas of our lives such as face recognition, online movements, virtual personal assistants (like Siri, Alexa, Google Assistant, Cortana, etc.), online chatbots (virtual chat assistants), and many more.

How does ML work?

In a way, Machine Learning performs in a similar way to human learning. For example, if a kid is shown images with specific things on them, they can memorize to identify and differentiate between them.

Machine Learning works in the same way: Through specific data input (training and testing data), specific algorithms, and certain commands (models), the computer is enabled to “learn” (i.e., trained) to identify certain patterns and to distinguish between them. With repeated training and feedback, the systems evolve and learn to make predictions.

ML works - Help Of Ai

The following figure lists some common applications of Machine Learning :

Machine Learning - Help Of Ai
Machine Learning Applications

Machine Learning applications understand from experience (well data) like humans without plain programming. When disclosed to new data, these applications understand, grow, modify, and develop by themselves. In other words, with Machine Learning, computers find insightful information without being told where to peek. Rather, they do this by leveraging algorithms that know from data in an iterative method.

Machine Learning has discovered applications in many locations of our lives such as face recognition, online campaigns, virtual personal assistants (like Siri, Alexa, Google Assistant, Cortana, etc.), online chatbots (virtual chat helpers), and many more.

3. INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT):

You must have read stories like: “a person was able to monitor his home through his smartphone even while he himself was sitting in another country”; “scientists were able to monitor the progress of whale who was operated upon and a chip was inserted in her body”; “a car sensor alerted the car owner about low air pressure in tires in time” and so on. All these are zero but some samples of applications of IoT. But what is IoT? Have we discussed that already? No, in a moment, we are going to do this ☺.

What is IoT?

IoT stands for Internet of Things. It is fundamentally a network using which things can transmit with each other using the Internet as means of communication between them. All the things should be IP protocol allowed in order to have this concept possible. Not one but multiple technologies are involved to create IoT a great success.

The IoT (Internet of Things) is a new age technology that allows computing devices (devices that can be programmed and can connect to the Internet such as smart home appliances like smart refrigerators or smart air conditioners, a smart heart monitor chip, etc.), to transfer data over a network like Internet without requiring human-to-human or -computer interaction.

INTERNET OF THINGS

The loT (Internet of Things) is a new age technology that allows computing devices to transfer data over a network like the Internet without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.

IoT Internet of Things - Help Of Ai
IoT (Internet of Things)

Practical applications of IoT technology can be found in many fields/areas today, such as:

Health and Fitness:

IoT smart gadgets like Fitbit, Jawbone, Nike, Misfit, etc., monitor your heart rate, blood pressure, etc., and take action accordingly such as sending emergency messages or updating your daily fitness log or contacting an appointed doctor, etc.

Home Security:

There are multiple home safety and security devices for everyone that enable videotape surveillance, motion, temperature, and air grade control to help you protect your family and your home when you’re not home.

Transport:

Driverless cars can ‘not only’ drive on road without drivers but also can be in communication with servers all time.

Shopping:

There are smart refrigerators nowadays that can order grocery items as soon their quantity in the fridge goes below a set level.

Smart Cities:

The IoT technology is the main enabler of making a ‘Smart city a reality. Smart surveillance, automated transportation, smarter energy management systems, water distribution, urban security, environmental monitoring, etc., are examples of Internet of Things applications for smart cities.

Sensors

We all have entry to sensors near us, directly or indirectly. In your school facility, smoke sensors are mounted, which submit an alarm the moment some smoke is noticed. Today’s smartphones can sense the change in direction, your hands near the top, your phone near another device, and so forth. All these are sensors around us.

Sensors are devices that measure some physical energy (like temperature or change in direction etc.) and convert it into some type of signal. Sensors are used for measuring the physical properties or changes in them, such as Temperature, Resistance, Capacitance, Conduction, Heat Transfer, etc.

SENSORS

Sensors are devices that measure some physical quantity (like temperature or change in director etc.) and convert it into some type of signal.

Different types of sensors that are normally used in different applications:

Temperature Sensor (measure change in temperature), Accelerometer (measure position, motion, tilt, shock, vibration, and acceleration). Proximity Sensor (measures the proximity/position of an object relative to the screen of a device), Pressure Sensor (measure the force or change in pressure), Light Sensor (measure contrast in the light intensity), Ultrasonic Sensor (measure ultrasonic waves), Smoke, Gas, and Alcohol Sensor (measure the leakage of smoke, gas, or alcohol), Touch Sensor (sense the position and pressure on a specific position of the device), Colour Sensor (senses the change in color), Humidity Sensor (senses the humidity changes), Gyroscope sensor (senses position, motion, tilt, shock, vibration, and acceleration).

Smartphone Sensors - Help Of Ai
SMART SENSORS

Smart sensors are intelligent sensors that can convert the measured quantities into digital data, digitally process them, transmit them, and can perform some form of decision making.

Sensors also play a very important role in the Internet of Things (IoT). The sensors of IoT are mainly smart sensors. Smart sensors convert the real-world quantity that they’re measuring into a digital data stream and are able to transmit them wirelessly over a network. The smart sensors have intelligent capabilities such as wireless communication and being an onboard microcontroller. They are used for analog to digital conversion, digital processing, decision making, and two-way communications.

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