Ai and its scope in different areas and the field of education

1. Introduction 

Artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly being employed in the research of educational technology, management sciences, and operational research areas. Intelligence is commonly defined as gathering knowledge and solving complex problems. Shortly, intelligent machines will replace human capabilities in numerous places. AI refers to the study of smart devices and software that can reason, learn, gather knowledge, communicate, manipulate, and perceive objects. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy as a branch of computer science aimed at making computers behave like humans. It entails the study of computation that enables perception, reasoning, and action. AI differs from psychology because it emphasizes analysis and differs from computer science in its focus on perception, reason, and action. It enables machines to become more intelligent and practical and works with the help of artificial neurons (artificial neural networks) and scientific theorems (if-then statements and logic). AI technologies have matured to the point where they offer practical benefits in many applications. Significant areas of AI include expert systems, intelligent computer-aided instruction, natural language processing, speech understanding, robotics and sensory systems, computer vision and scene recognition, and neural computing. Expert systems, in particular, are a rapidly growing technology that significantly impacts various fields of life. The techniques employed in AI include neural networks, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computing, computer-aided instruction, and hybrid artificial intelligence.

Papers published on different AI techniques quarterly.
Fig 1: Papers published on other AI approaches quarterly.

When compared to natural intelligence, artificial intelligence has several advantages. It is more permanent, consistent, less expensive, and can easily be duplicated and disseminated. AI can also perform specific tasks much faster and better than humans. Because of these benefits, AI is influential in educational technology, where it can help make the teaching-learning process more effective and concrete through various AI teaching techniques. 

2. Meaning of artificial intelligence 

Artificial intelligence is the combination of two words: fake + intelligence. “Artificial” means “not real” or “not natural,” and “intelligence” means “the ability to reason, to trigger new thoughts, to perceive, and to learn.” Artificial intelligence can be defined as the area of computer science that mainly focuses on making intelligent machines that work and react like human beings. It combines many activities, including designing artificial computers that recognize speech, learn, plan, and solve problems. When any system adapts itself according to the situation in any environment, it is called intelligent. In other words, programming machines to think and act with some level of human intelligence is known as artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the efficient use of limited resources. Therefore, artificial intelligence can be defined as making computer programs to solve complex problems like humans. It is divided into two parts: solving complex problems by the machine and behaving like human beings. The term “artificial intelligence” is also utilized to define a property of devices or programs: the intelligence that the system shows. Artificial intelligence is a combination of science and engineering for making machines that behave intelligently. It combines many fields, such as philosophy, psychology, and computer science. 

Factors included in AI 
Fig 2: Factors included in AI 

3. Coverage of artificial intelligence in extra areas 

3.1. In the field of education 

3.1.1. Artificial intelligence can automate basic movements in education, like grading 

Although artificial intelligence (AI) may never achieve the same level of proficiency as human grading, it has made significant strides in this area. Automated grading for multiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank tests is now possible, and software development to grade student writing is not far off. Essay-grading software is still in its early stages and has yet to match the accuracy of human grading. For college instructors, grading homework and tests for extensive lecture courses can be daunting and time-consuming, even with the assistance of teaching assistants. Similarly, elementary and secondary school teachers often find grading a significant drain on their time, which could be better spent interacting with students, preparing for classes, or engaging in professional development.

3.1.2. Educational software can be adjusted to student requirements

Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) in education will significantly impact the sector, particularly in delivering personalized learning. The current trend towards adaptive learning programs, games, and software demonstrates AI’s potential to respond to students’ needs. With the capability to emphasize specific topics, repeat lessons until students achieve mastery, and provide a flexible learning pace, custom-tailored education is a viable solution to cater to the diverse levels of students in a single classroom.

Educators may not always possess the necessary insight to identify gaps in their curricula and instructional materials, which can make students uncertain about specific concepts. Artificial intelligence provides a viable solution to this problem. Coursera, a leading provider of massive open online courses, has already implemented this solution. The system informs the educator when many students submit incorrect answers to a particular homework assignment. It generates tailored messages for future students, offering hints for the correct answer.

This system addresses any gaps in explanation that may arise during the course, ensuring that all students establish a consistent foundation of knowledge. Rather than waiting for instructor feedback, students receive immediate feedback that aids in their comprehension of the concept and assists them in correctly applying it in the future.

Although human tutors possess qualities that machines cannot replicate, the possibility of students being tutored by AI-powered tutors in the future cannot be ruled out. Existing tutoring programs that utilize artificial intelligence can assist students in fundamental subjects such as mathematics and writing. However, these programs are currently insufficient in aiding students in high-order thinking and creativity, areas where real-life educators are still needed to provide guidance. Nonetheless, developing advanced tutoring systems is not an unattainable goal, given the rapid pace of technological advancement in recent decades.

3.1.5. AI-driven programs can provide students and teachers with valuable feedback 

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize the education sector by providing tailored course content and feedback to both teachers and students. Educational institutions that offer online courses are increasingly adopting AI systems to monitor students’ academic progress and alert educators when a student’s performance is unsatisfactory. These AI systems enable students to receive the necessary support and help educators identify areas that require improvement in their teaching methods for students struggling with the subject matter. It is worth noting that some institutions are also developing AI programs that assist students in selecting majors based on their strengths and weaknesses. While students ultimately have the final say in their chosen majors, such AI programs mark a significant step forward in advising students on their academic paths.

3.1.6. It is changing how we discover and interact with DATA

The impact of AI on the information we encounter daily often goes unnoticed. Search engines like Google tailor their results based on our location, while e-commerce platforms like Amazon suggest products based on past purchases. Personal assistants such as Siri adapt to our commands and preferences, and online advertisements cater to our interests and shopping habits. AI has become integral to our daily lives, shaping our experiences and preferences in ways we may not fully realize.

Intelligent systems profoundly impact how we access and utilize information in personal and professional contexts. These systems’ influence extends beyond our daily lives and may revolutionize academic research and information retrieval. Recently, AI-based techniques have fundamentally transformed how we interact with information. Through the continued integration of advanced technology, future students may experience different approaches to conducting research and obtaining factual information than their present-day counterparts. 

3.1.7. It could modify the position of teachers 

Teachers will always play a crucial role in education, but new technology in the form of intelligent computing systems may change the nature of that role. As discussed earlier, AI can perform tasks like grading, help students improve their learning, and even substitute for real-world tutoring. However, AI can be adapted to other aspects of teaching as well. AI systems can be programmed to provide expertise, which allows students to ask questions and find information or even take the place of teachers for basic course materials. In most cases, AI will shift the role of the teacher to that of a facilitator. Teachers will supplement AI lessons, assist struggling students, and provide human interaction and hands-on experiences for their students. Technology is already driving some of these changes in the classroom, particularly in online schools or those that adopt the flipped classroom model. 

3.1.8.  AI  can  make  trial-and-error  learning  less intimidating 

Acquiring knowledge through trial and error is a crucial aspect of learning, but students often experience apprehension and anxiety about the possibility of failure or not knowing the answer. The pressure of being evaluated by instructors or peers can be overwhelming. However, intelligent computer systems can aid learning and provide a less intimidating approach to trial and error. With artificial intelligence, students can experiment and learn without fearing judgment. AI tutors also offer improvement solutions, making this technology an ideal format for supporting this type of learning. Furthermore, AI systems typically learn through trial and error, enhancing their potential as an invaluable tool for students. 

3.1.9. Data powered by AI can modify how schools discover, teach, and help students

The utilization of intelligent computer systems for data acquisition is already impacting how colleges engage with potential and current students. These systems are aiding in recruitment and course selection and are making every aspect of the college experience more tailored to the needs and objectives of individual students. Data mining plays a considerable role in higher education, but the integration of artificial intelligence may bring about further changes. Some educational institutions are already implementing AI-guided instruction to assist students in transitioning from high school to college. It is plausible that in the future, the college selection process may resemble that of Amazon or Netflix, with a recommendation system that suggests the most suitable schools and programs based on student interests. 

3.1.10. AI may modify where students learn, who teaches them, and how they develop primary skills 

The potential for artificial intelligence to revolutionize the education sector is becoming increasingly apparent, although substantial changes may not occur for several decades. AI systems, software, and resources can provide students access to education from anywhere and anytime. In certain instances, AI-powered programs may even replace some classroom instruction and educators. Currently, educational programs incorporating AI are assisting students in acquiring fundamental skills. As developers continue to progress and innovate, they will likely expand the services available to students. 

3.2 Language understanding: 

The AI-powered assistant can understand and respond to spoken and written natural language and translate between natural languages. 

  • 1. Speech Learning
  • 2. Semantic  Data Processing  (Computational Linguistics) 
  • 3. Question Replying
  • 4. Details Retrieval 
  • 5. Language Translation 

3.3 Learning and Adaptive Systems:  

The ability to adapt behaviour based on past experiences and develop general rules about the world from those experiences.

  • 1. Cybernetics 
  • 2. Concept Formation 

3.4 Problem-solving 

One should be able to express a problem suitably, plan for solving it, and determine when new information is needed and how to acquire it.

  • 1. Inference, which includes resolution-based theorem proving, plausible inference, and inductive inference, is an essential concept in artificial intelligence. 
  • 2. Interactive Problem Solving 
  • 3. Automatic Program Writing 
  • 4. Heuristic Search 

3.5 Robots 

Able to move over terrain and manipulate objects along with other abilities.

1. Exploration 
2. Transportation/Navigation 
3. Industrial Automation (e.g., Assembly Tasks, Executive Tasks, Process Control) 
4. Security 
5. Other  (Agriculture,  Fishing,  Mining,  Sanitation, 
Construction, etc.) 
6. Military 
7. Household 

3.6 Games 

Players of games like Chess, Go, Kalah, and Checkers must understand and follow formal rules. These rules can be translated into a structure that allows problem-solving and learning to improve their performance in the game.

3.7 For emergency services

Artificial intelligence (AI) in handling emergencies such as fires or floods can yield significant benefits. Deploying metal or silicon firefighters can save lives without endangering human lives. These machines are designed to withstand high temperatures and smoke, and their laser and radar technology allows them to search for people in confined spaces. While AI was first used in firefighting, it is now applied in driving ambulances, handling dangerous law enforcement situations, and cleaning up hazardous spills. The Navy is even incorporating AI technology for use on water, and some are developing it for urban settings. 

3.8 For Entertainment

We can use artificial intelligence in music, make fake directors who notice the natural world and generate stories. We can create robots that compose music and pitch, and robots can make your favourite songs. New technology can also restore the lives of stars who are dead, like Tupac Shakur and Michael Jackson. 

3.9 For providing services to customers 

In contemporary times, artificial intelligence (AI) is increasingly utilized to provide customer services, replacing human intervention. AI is particularly useful in tasks such as calculations, where the possibility of human error can be eliminated. AI also incorporates natural language processing, which enables direct communication between humans and machines in the natural language of the former, thereby facilitating efficient and effective service delivery. Additionally, AI utilizes various algorithms, such as hill-climbing and best-first search, to optimize complex problems while minimizing costs and time. For instance, AI can decide whether to accept or reject a proposed credit card purchase.

Working of a search engine
Fig:3 Working of a search engine

3.10 The central characteristic of the expert system is to collect information from many sources and collect it in one place. Many search techniques are used in heuristic classification, like hill-climbing, best first search, etc. It tries to find the optimal solution to a complex problem at a low cost and in minimum time. For example, it decides whether to accept a proposed credit card purchase.

4. Searching techniques in artificial intelligence

In AI, searching has to be done to find the solution to a problem because the answer is not known in advance. For it, AI programs are developed that search for solutions because solution steps are not known beforehand and have to be found out. For doing searching, the following steps are required. So, we can say that searching is a process that transforms the initial state into a goal state. 

  • 1. Initial state 
  • 2. A set of legal operators
  • 3. Goal state or final state
Example of searching in AI
Fig 4: Example of searching in AI

Searching in AI is broadly categorized into two parts-

Different searching types in AI
Fig 5: Different searching types in AI

5. Invention in the field of AI

An American scientist, John McCarthy, invented the term Artificial Intelligence and is credited as the founder of Artificial Intelligence. He was a computer and cognitive scientist and was very instrumental in the early development of AI. In the 1940s and 50s, many scientists from diverse fields, such as mathematics, psychology, engineering, economics, and political science, started to try to create an artificial mind that could work like a human. This academic pursuit officially began in 1956. Ross Quillian wrote the first program of AI that utilized the semantic net. A semantic net is like a graph in which nodes represent concepts, and arrows are used to provide links between the nodes. In February 2011, an exhibition match called Jeopardy! A quiz show was held. The competition was between IBM’s question-answering system, Watson, and two champions, Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings. The design beat them by a significant margin.

Example of robot
Fig 6: Example of robot

6. The future of AI

Many experts are researching artificial intelligence, and machines will become more and more potent in the future. However, anything with advantages also has disadvantages, so there may be ethical issues related to devices. For example, who will be responsible if a device is made for compassionate work and makes a mistake? We cannot blame the doctor if an AI program is created for diagnostic purposes and provides the wrong answer. Therefore, policies will have to be developed to address these issues. In the future, machines will be designed to communicate with us like humans and determine what should be done in different situations.

7. Conclusion

The field of artificial intelligence gives machines the ability to think analytically using concepts. Artificial intelligence techniques have made tremendous contributions in various areas over the last two decades. Artificial intelligence will continue to play an increasingly important role in different fields. This paper discusses the concept of artificial intelligence and its scope in other areas, focusing on its impact on education. As everyone knows, artificial intelligence is the intelligence behaviour of machines that professionals give. Artificial intelligence has simplified our lives, from article writing to game playing and decision-making. In any device, the minds of many experts can be combined, making it more potent than a single expert mind. A single machine can complete many tasks, and the best part is that it never gets tired. Now, robots are being created with emotions, which will alleviate loneliness. However, there is another aspect that can be dangerous for us. Becoming entirely dependent on machines can ruin our lives as we become lazy and stop doing work ourselves. Additionally, devices cannot provide the same feelings as humans. Therefore, machines should only be used where they are required.

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